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· Compression Ignition Addict
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Discussion Starter · #1 · (Edited)
When having issues, always scan for codes with a good code reader. I HIGHLY recommend downloading ForScan to either a smartphone (ForScan Lite) or to a laptop (full version). You will need an OBDII adapter to use the software. The BAFX BRAND of adapter is inexpensive and the OBDLINK MX+ is more expensive, but perhaps has more features and capabilities. Pay attention to the type of adapter (WiFi, iOS, or USB) as it relates to your specific need.

NOTE - when buying cam or crank sensors, ONLY buy OEM sensors (and buy them from a Ford Parts supplier, or a dealership - not a general automotive parts store).

There are two types of sync. Cam/Crank sync (or just Sync) and FICM sync. I will attach a document on the FICM that contains FICM sync (and some sync) troubleshooting, but this thread is primarily on Sync troubleshooting.

When troubleshooting, make sure you have the PIDs programmed correctly in your scan tool, I have seen the two sync's reversed in the scan tool programming. Also, make sure your VPower and LPower voltages are 10.5 volts or above. Also, it is important to know that your alternator is working properly (not causing voltage quality issues). Lastly, you need a strong crank - 150 rpm minimum. If you have no rpm reading, then that will be discussed later in this thread.

NOTE - it is POSSIBLE to have FICM sync and not have Sync.
Several situations have been documented here it can occur. One is a bent Crankshaft tone ring (links to the thread below), and the other is being "one tooth off" in the cam and crank gear alignment (timing).
ficm sync yes/ sync no

The information will come from a variety of sources and will eventually contain links to threads from various forums. It will be a work-in-progress for awhile.

Sync:
Sync is achieved when the PCM receives a signal from the Crankshaft sensor (CKP) indicating the sensor is working and the correct signal has been identified by the PCM. If the Crankshaft sensor is working improperly, the PCM cannot calculate engine speed or cylinder position, preventing fuel delivery. Engine RPM is derived from the CKP.

FICM Sync:
The FICM uses CMPO (Camshaft Position Sensor Output) and CKPO (Crankshaft Position Sensor Output) signals, which are sent by the PCM, to calculate FICM SYNC. FICM SYNC is calculated by the FICM and is the correlation between the camshaft
pin and the crankshaft triggers. Once FICM SYNC is achieved, the FICM uses engine speed, MFDES (Mass Fuel Desired), EOT, and ICP to calculate fuel timing, pulse width, and pilot injection usage. If the CMPO and CKPO signals are not properly timed, then FICM Sync may not occur.

Always diagnose any Sync issues before diagnosing FICM Sync issues.
Be aware that you can have CMP and CKP codes simply due to an engine stall or excessive cranks.

To properly troubleshoot a Sync issue, it would be best to have an oscilloscope and knowledge of its use.

Sync issues can occur with the following issues:
  • Bad CMP or CKP sensor
  • Bad wiring to the CMP or CKP (this includes improper shielding of the wiring due to damage or improper repair)
  • Oil soaked connectors to the CMP or CKP
  • Loose connectors at the CMP, CKP, or PCM (potentially even a loose FICM connector)
  • Loose CKP tone wheel or a damaged CKP tone wheel - including a bent tooth on the tone wheel. A new crank shaft is required if this is the case.
  • Loose CMP timing pin (they can get loose enough to actually damage the CMP sensor, AND they can even fall out completely)
  • Rust under the CMP flange (causing it not to seat properly) and/or on the sensor itself.
  • Bad PCM (processing it incorrectly at higher frequencies)
  • Crank shaft end play (not common)
  • Excessive alternator "ripple" (need an oscilloscope), or you can do a quick AC voltage check and should have less than 100 mV (but best to measure RMS AC voltage). Good video - h t t p s://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1c8uD1C6WNk You could also just take the alternator to an electrical shop (or even an autoparts store) and have it tested.
  • On an engine re-build, it is possible to have mis-aligned the Crank and Cam gears. It has been documented that being off by "one tooth" might still allow the engine to start.
In addition to the FICM sync document, also attached is a Sync troubleshooting document.

TO VERIFY THE CRANKSHAFT TONE RING (WHEEL) IS DAMAGED FOLLOW THE PROCEDURE BELOW:
• Disconnect battery cables
• Drain oil out of oil pan
• Remove both turbocharger cooler pipes
• Remove the radiator stator shroud
• Loosen engine mount bolts from chassis. Lift engine off of chassis until turbo is against the heat shield on the cowl
• Remove all the oil pan bolts. Drop oil pan down to remove bolts in the pick up tube. Remove the oil pan by backing it out towards the transmission
• The crankshaft trigger wheel is located at the front of the crankshaft. Manually turn engine over while inspecting every tooth on the trigger wheel.
You could also use a borescope and insert it into the opening after removal of the CKP. Then rotate the engine and look for uneven movement.

TO VERIFY THE CAMSHAFT TRIGGER (PIN or PEG) IS DAMAGED:
• Use a borescope and insert it into the opening after removal of the CMP.
 

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· Compression Ignition Addict
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Discussion Starter · #3 · (Edited)
Documents attached on setting the timing - Cam and Crank gear alignment

Many people align the gears with a Tee Square (instead of using the OEM tool), just make 100% sure that the reference point for the block is level when doing that.

Video:
h t t p s://youtu.be/1da92-b7I2c

The two holes in the Cam gear (below the key-way) should be on the opposite side of the Cam gear center point as the Crank gear .... and they should align with the Cam gear timing mark AND the crankshaft timing peg. Thanks to "powerstrokevirus" for the third pic.

The (expensive) OEM alignment tool part # is 303-772, if you decide you want to go that route.

Below is a video from DieselTechRon in which he troubleshoots a vibration problem caused by an improperly installed crankshaft adapter. Note that SOMETIMES the alignment dowel was not installed on the original crankshaft adapter. If you decide to remove this adapter, proper care MUST be taken to get it back on EXACTLY like it came off.


If you are checking the timing because someone has previously been into the engine, it is definitely easier to see the timing marks with the adapter off - just be aware of the risks and the need for precise work.

After setting the timing and re-installing the adapter, you can check the runout. It should be less than .001 inch.
 

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· Compression Ignition Addict
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Discussion Starter · #4 · (Edited)
Note - having a good quality multi-meter will be invaluable for testing of the cam/crank sensors. You need one that tests the frequency (hertz) of the electrical signal.

ALSO - if you end up deciding to replace a sensor - buy an OEM sensor ONLY (ie from Ford or from a Ford dealership)!

Cam and Crank Sensor troubleshooting
Be aware that both of these sensors can leak oil back into the connector. This oil can cause damage that then corrupts the signal. If the sensor is leaking oil, then both the sensor and the pigtail should be replaced. Also, the wiring is shielded, so any repair work needs to be done w/ soldered connections and re-installing shielding in the wiring. Lastly, twist the wire before adding the shielding. It just helps the effectiveness of the shielding.
CKP pigtail: WPT-359 or 3U2Z-14S411-CGC
CMP pigtail: WPT-1271 or 3U2Z-14S411-JCA
(the CMP pigtail in the link below is aftermarket, but might be better due to its length)
also
Crankshaft sensor o-rings: 3C3Z-9C064-DA
Camshaft sensor o-rings: 3C3Z-9N693-JA
also
Crankshaft sensor part # (F-series): 3C3Z-6C315-AA
Camshaft sensor part # (F-series): 8C3Z-12K073-A

One "trick" (if you have a no-start w/ a no-sync), you can try cranking at the same time someone CAREFULLY wiggles the wires to both the cam and crank sensors. This MIGHT identify a wiring issue - BUT AGAIN, BE CAREFUL!

Video of re-wiring the cam sensor:

NOTE: The Crank Sensor RARELY fails. This is also true about the CKP wiring!

CKP and CMP electrical diagram:


Crank Shaft Position Sensor (CKP) troubleshooting:

Tthe Crank Sensor (a variable reluctance, or magnetic, sensor) is responsible for engine speed and crankshaft position. Also, there is a missing two-tooth window to provide sync pulses to the CKP sensor. The WSM states that if the tach isn't moving, the crank sensor is likely to have died. From the CKP, the PCM software gets an edge every 3 degrees and these edges are used for fuel injection timing, fuel quantity control along with the calculation of engine speed.

In the PC/ED manual it states: "Engine speed is determined by counting 15 windows on the crankshaft gear each crankshaft rotation" on page 5-68. Also in the PC/ED it states that the PCM must have a CKP signal for the IPR to move off of 14%. Without a CKP signal, you should also see 0 fuel pulse width AND the IPR should default to 14%.

To do a quick troubleshooting on the CKP sensor, check the resistance between Pin 30 (harness side - Dark Blue wire) and Pin 41 (harness side - Orange wire) of the middle PCM connector (C1381c) . Resistance should be 300-400 ohms.

also:

Connect a DVOM to both of the CKP circuits (+ and -) of the middle PCM connector.
  • PCM connector 1381c (PCM middle connector) for the CKP troublehooting:
  • Pin# 30 Crankshaft (+) (Dark Blue)
  • Pin# 41 Crankshaft (-) (Gray)
Please note that the wires must have the proper orientation. If they are reversed the PCM may not interpret the signal properly. The PCM "watches" the leading and trailing portions of the waveform.

Set your DVOM to Hz. On the CKP circuit, you should be seeing 150 to 200 Hz when the engine is cranked over (directly proportional to 150 to 200 RPMs).
The range for the CKP sensor is between 100 to 4000 for the CKP sensor.

To check the WIRING ONLY: You can measure the resistance between the PCM engine connector (C1381c) pin 30, harness side and the CKP sensor pin 1, harness side; and between the PCM engine connector pin 41, harness side and the CKP sensor pin 2, harness side. Resistance on each test should be less than 5 ohms. CKP connector is C101.

Cam Shaft Position Sensor (CMP) troubleshooting:

The cam sensor is a variable reluctance (magnetic) sensor, which responds to a rotating trigger (often called a peg or pin) protruding from the camshaft. The sensor produces a sine wave in response to the peg as it passes the sensor. It produces its own voltage output (AC) while the engine is cranking. This cam shaft trigger allows the CMP sensor to indicate proper camshaft to crankshaft position (cylinder identification) for correct cylinder timing. The PCM calculates crankshaft rotational velocity for each cylinder from this position signal. The acceleration for each cylinder is then calculated into a percentage delta change decrease in velocity for use by the misfire algorithm. The resulting deviant cylinder acceleration values are used in evaluating misfire.

In addition to no Sync, no fuel command signal when the ICP, RPM, and VPWR signals are correct usually indicates a loss of CMP signal.

To do a quick troubleshooting on the CMP sensor, check the resistance between Pin 31 (harness side - red wire) and Pin 43 (harness side - orange wire) of the middle PCM connector (C1381c) . Resistance should be 800-1000 ohms.

also:

Check the red wire (Pin 31) and orange wire (Pin 43) wires at the PCM middle (C1381c) connector. Using a multimeter that reads hertz check across both wires while cranking (back probe w/ plug in), you should see around 1.3 Hz. If you are within a couple of tenths of that reading then you should be ok. Between 1.1 and 1.9 Hz is acceptable. The operating range of the sensor is .5 to 50 Hz.

To check the WIRING ONLY: You can measure the resistance between the PCM engine connector pin 31, harness side and the CMP sensor pin 1, harness side; and between the PCM engine connector pin 43, harness side and the CMP sensor pin 2, harness side. Resistance on each test should be less than 5 ohms. CMP connector is C1275.

As stated above - the cam sensor is a variable reluctance (magnetic) sensor, which responds to a rotating trigger protruding from the camshaft. the sensor produces a sine wave in response to the peg as it passes the sensor.

This sensor produces its own voltage output (AC) while the engine is cranking...you could put a meter to pins 31 and 43 of the C1381c PCM plug: center PCM connector, Disconnect plug from PCM and have someone crank the engine over and check for AC voltage output of cam sensor. When checking A/C volts, the voltage will fluctuate and it should be at least .14 volts and typically go up to 0.5 volts - It can occasionally go to 1 volt as it fluctuates.

Credit to forddoctor:
Check CMP for "rust jacking":
Note that rust under the CMP flange can move the CMP sensor away from the cam shaft trigger pin/peg and can cause intermittent sync. It can also cause a no-start. It can also cause an engine stall event. This has been named "rust jacked CMP".




Lastly, a cam sensor is only about $30 if you just want to pop one in. REMEMBER - OE only (and Parts stores do not really have OEM sensors IMO)

More to come as I have time..........
 

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Did I miss it somewhere...Is SYNC or FICMSYNC tested with KOEO or KOEC(cranking)?

Mine was running perfectly fine one day - the next day I went to start and all it will do is crank.

Using FORScan, and looking at FICMSYNC, I get = NO at KOEO, FICM LPWR = 10.50, FICM_MPWR - 48.00, ICP = 0 and IPR = 14.84%

Codes: 0336, 0405, 0472, 2285-E0, 2614-60 (all PCM). Also get a OBDII of 2285-C

It's an 05, EGR deleted (probably why the 0405). The ICP has been unplugged due to a known issue for 3 weeks. Could be the reason for the 0472 and the 2285. However, the 0336 and the 2614 are new.
 

· Compression Ignition Addict
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12,035 Posts
Discussion Starter · #6 ·
Both Sync and FICM sync should be "YES" (or 1), when cranking.

Probably best to post up a new thread instead of tagging onto a "sticky" thread.
 

· Compression Ignition Addict
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12,035 Posts
Discussion Starter · #7 · (Edited)
The information below is essentially a duplicate of what was posted above, but the procedures below come directly out of a Ford manual.

Test procedures if you do NOT have an Oscilloscope:

Cranks NO Start: SYNC=No and/or FICM SYC=No

NOTE: Before starting the following diagnostics, remove the driver side battery and cover up the positive battery cable head to prevent arcing.

Make sure that your alternator is working properly (not causing voltage quality issues).

Procedure for SYNC=NO with no, low or erratic RPM (possible p2617)

• Disconnect the center connector from the PCM (1381c), (176c for E-Series)

• Set the DVOM to frequency to take a HZ reading, can also set it to A/C volts.

• A valid HZ reading is 150 to 190HZ and be steady. The A/C voltage should be at least .6 volts and steady as well.

• If there are no, low, or erratic readings then check the CKP sensor and wiring per pinpoint test D8. If there is a valid reading then go to the next procedure below.

Testing the sensor AND the wiring: Check the resistance between the connector (C1381c) on the PCM Pin 30 (harness side) and Pin 41 (harness side). Resistance should be 300-400 ohms.

To check the WIRING ONLY: You can measure the resistance between the PCM engine connector (C1381c) pin 30, harness side and the CKP sensor pin 1, harness side; and between the PCM engine connector pin 41, harness side and the CKP sensor pin 2, harness side. Resistance on each test should be less than 5 ohms. CKP connector is C101.

Procedure for SYNC=NO with RPM (possible p2614)

Make sure that your alternator is working properly (not causing voltage quality issues), AND make sure your crank is strong and steady at 150 rpm minimum.

• Disconnect the center connector from the PCM (1381c), (176c for E-Series).

• To check the CMP signal, hook up a DVOM to pins 31 and 43 of the 1381c or 176c connector.

• Set the DVOM to frequency to take a HZ reading. You can also set it to A/C volts.

• A valid HZ reading is around 1.1 to 1.6 HZ. If checking A/C volts, the voltage will fluctuate and it should be AT LEAST .14 volts and vary up to .5 volts, and CAN go over 1 volt as it fluctuates.

• If there is no or a low reading, check the CMP sensor and wiring per pinpoint test V4. If the sensor and circuit check out, remove the sensor and inspect the end for signs of the cam pin striking it. If it is damaged then the cam pin has backed out and struck the sensor and the camshaft needs to be replaced.

Testing the sensor AND the wiring: Measure the resistance between the PCM engine connector C1381c (center plug) pin 31, harness side and the same PCM engine connector pin 43, harness side. Should be between 800 and 1000 ohms.

To check the WIRING ONLY: You can measure the resistance between the PCM engine connector pin 31, harness side and the CMP sensor pin 1, harness side; and between the PCM engine connector pin 43, harness side and the CMP sensor pin 2, harness side. Resistance on each test should be less than 5 ohms. CMP connector is C1275.

• If the cam and crank sensors and circuits all check out or have been replaced and still SYNC=No, replace the PCM and retest.

NOTE: The readings on the DVOM from the CMP will fluctuate a lot, because there is only one timing peg that comes around for every two engine revolutions.


Procedure for SYNC = YES and FICM SYNC = NO

Note: If SYNC=YES, it only means that there is good cam and crank signals to the PCM. If there is a wire issue between the PCM and FICM or if the signals are out of time, the FICM SYNC will be NO or may intermittently jump from YES to NO.

• The center connector of the PCM will have to be connected.

• While cranking the engine over, make sure that the FICM V and FICM L powers are above 10.5 volts and the FICM Mpower is around 48 volts at all times.

• The pins 19 and 20 of the center PCM connector 1381c or 176c will have to be back probed.

• Pin 19 is the CKPO circuit to the FICM. To check it, set the DVOM to HZ and connect it from the pin 19 to ground. The HZ signal should match the CKP reading of around 150-190 HZ.

• Pin 20 is the CMPO circuit to the FICM. To check it, set the DVOM to HZ and connect it from the pin 20 to ground. The HZ signal should match the CMP reading of around 1.1 to 1.6.

• If there are incorrect readings at either pin, run through the SYNC tests above for the appropriate output sensor (CKP or CMP) before replacing the PCM.

• If there are correct readings at both pins at the PCM connector, pins 5 and 10 of the FICM connector 1388c will have to be back probed.

• Pin 5 is the CKPO circuit (150-190 HZ) and pin 10 is the CMPO circuit (1.1-1.6HZ). Repeat the steps listed above. All readings should be the same at the PCM and the FICM connectors.

• If there are no or low readings at the FICM connector, there is a wire problem between the PCM and the FICM. If there is a valid HZ reading at both CMPO and CKPO pins into the FICM, check all powers/grounds at the FICM and if good, try a known good FICM and retest.

NOTE: Mechanical timing issues can only be diagnosed after all of the above diagnostics have been performed. If all of the above diagnostics have been performed and there is still a FICM SYNC issue, then there is a mechanical timing concern. The two parts of the engine that can cause timing issues are the crankshaft tone wheel and/or the crank gear.


• If the vehicle is a crank no start and has timing concerns with the tone wheel, then usually the scan tool will not complete a relative compression test with a SYNC error.

• If the vehicle starts and runs rough the FICM SYNC concerns go to the power balance function and click on the enhanced button (has a # symbol on it). If the engine smooths out, there is a tone wheel concern.

• If the vehicle will start only off of an alternative fuel source (silicone spray) and then runs fine, there is likely a cam gear concern.

NOTE: The tone wheel is located in the crankcase and is pressed onto the crankshaft. Therefore, to inspect it for looseness or damage, the oil pan will need to be removed. If the tone wheel is damaged or loose, the crankshaft needs to be replaced.

• Before starting the following diagnostics, remove the driver side battery and cover up the positive battery cable lead to prevent arcing.


Procedure for SYNC = no WITH NO rpm (possible p2617)

• Disconnect the center connector from the PCM (1381c), (186c for E-series).

• To check the CKP signal, hook up a DVOM to pins 30 (CKP+) and 41 (CKP-) of the 1381c or 176c connector.

• Set the DVOM to frequency to take a HZ reading or set the DVOM to Vac and look at AC volts.

• A valid HZ reading will be around 600 HZ and will fluctuate higher and lower. The AC voltage should be around 3 volts and will also fluctuate.

• If there are no readings then check the CKP sensor and wiring per pinpoint test D8. If there is a valid reading then go the next procedure below.

• Reference the 6.01 oscilloscope setup document.


Procedure for SYNC = NO with RPM (possible p2614)

• Disconnect the center connector from the PCM (1381c), (176c for E-Series).

• To check the CMO signal, hook up a DVOM to pins 31 and 43 of the 1381c or 176c connector.

• Set the DVOM to frequency to take a HZ reading, can also set it to A/C volts.

• A valid HZ reading is around 1.1 to 1.6 HZ. The A/C voltage will fluctuate and it should go over 1 volt as it fluctuates.

• If there is no reading, then check the CMP sensor and wiring per pinpoint test V4. If the sensor and circuit check out, remove the sensor and inspect the end for signs of the cam pin striking it. If it has, then the cam pin has backed out and the camshaft needs to be replaced.

• If the cam and crank sensors and circuits all check out and still no sync, replace the PCM and retest.

• The signal is best checked with the oscilloscope. Reference the 6.01 o-scope setup document.

Note: The readings on the DVOM from the CMP will fluctuate a lot, because there is only one timing peg that comes around for every two engine revolutions.


Procedure for SYNC = YES and FICMSYNC = NO

Note: If SNYC=YES, it only means that there is a good cam and crank signal to the PCM. If there is a wire issue between the PCM and FICM or if the signals are out of time, the FICM SYNC will be NO or may intermittently jump fro YES to NO.

• The center connector of the PCM will have to be connected.

• While cranking, make sure that the FICM_V and FICM_L powers are above 10.5 volts and the FICM_M power is around 48 volts at all times.

• The pins 19 and 20 of the center PCM connector 1381c or 176c will have to be back probed.

• Pin 19 is the CKPO circuit. To check it, set the DVOM to HZ and connect it from the pin 19 to ground. The HZ signal should match the CKP reading of around 150-190 HZ.

• Pin 20 is the CMPO circuit. To check it, set the DVOM to HZ and connect it from the pin 20 to ground. The HZ signal should match the CMP reading of around 1.1 to 1.6.

• If there are incorrect readings at either pin, run through the SYNC tests above for the appropriate output sensor (CKP or CMO) before replacing the PCM.

• If there are correct readings at both pins at the PCM connector, pins 5 and 10 of the FICM connector 1388c will have to be back probed.

• Pin 5 is the CKPO circuit and pin 10 in CMPO circuit. Repeat the steps listed above. All readings should be the same at the PCM and the FICM connectors.

• If there are not readings at the FICM connector, there is a wire problem. If there is a valid HZ reading at both CMPO and CKPO pins into the FICM, replace the FICM.
 

· Compression Ignition Addict
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12,035 Posts
Discussion Starter · #8 ·
I thought that I should add a link to a thread in which there was successful troubleshooting of a bad CKP sensor and pigtail, and the subsequent successful repair by @nlebaron :


The above thread is a VERY good example of how one should troubleshoot problems with the 6.0L.
 
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