case,,, I've got more
P1211, P1212 Ford Powerstroke Diesel
Ford Diesels use oil pressure to drive the high pressure fuel injection system. The engine oil pump not only pumps oil to lubricate engine components, but also pumps oil into a reservoir to be used by the high pressure oil pump.
The high pressure oil pump pulls oil from the reservoir and raises the pressure to the point where it can pop open the injectors. The high pressure pump also increases the pressure of the diesel fuel so it can inject into the cylinders and vaporize quickly.
The oil pressure generated by the high pressure oil pump is regulated by an electric solenoid that is pulsed by the PCM. As this Injection Pressure Regulator (IPR) solenoid is powered and de-powered, a small shaft moves back and forth, allowing spurts of oil to flow into the high pressure oil lines The IPR can regulate pressures in excess of 3,000psi. The high pressure oil moves from the pump to the cylinder head through braided steel lines.
The PCM fires the diesel fuel injectors by energizing a solenoid coil in the injector. Unlike gas fuel injectors where the solenoid lifts a pintle off a seat to allow pressurized fuel to flow into the cylinder, the solenoid in Ford diesel fuel injectors allows high pressure oil to flow. Think of this like a doctor’s syringe. The pressurized oil pushes on the plunger of the syringe to “inject” the fuel through the injector and into the cylinder. Since the minimum psi required to open the injectors is 400psi, the PCM monitors the actual pressure of the oil going to the injector with an Injection Control Pressure (ICP) sensor. Using data from the ICP sensor, the PCM can adjust the pulse rate to the IPR.
Since the IPR operates off of a pulsed voltage, the amount of ON time versus OFF time is referred to as “duty cycle.” The high pressure pump can easily achieve pressures in excess of 3,000psi. But it’s up to the IPR to regulate the amount of pressure going to the injectors. The IPR can regulate a 3,000 psi reading with no more than a 12% duty cycle. Yet, the PCM is capable of providing up to a 60% duty cycle to the IPR. However, once it reaches 50%, the PCM sets a trouble code P1211 or P1212 for “ICP above/below normal.
If you receive this code, your first step is to check the oil level in the crankcase. Since the entire high pressure system depends on having enough oil in the reservoir, a drop in oil level of 3 or more quarts can bring the system to a quick stop. Unlike a gasoline engine where the oil pressure sending unit is located in the engine block in an oil gallery, the oil pressure sending unit on a Ford Diesel is located in the top of the high pressure oil reservoir. In other words, Ford wants to make sure the high pressure oil reservoir is getting good oil pressure. If the oil “idiot” light does not go out the high pressure oil reservoir isn’t getting enough pressure. The high pressure pump cannot produce high pressure if it’s not getting enough oil from the engine oil pump. If the oil level checks out and the oil pressure light goes out, move on to the rest of the checks.
The PCM monitors RPM during cranking. As soon as RPMs reach 150, the PCM activates the IPR to begin regulating oil pressure. At the same time, the PCM starts monitoring the ICP sensor to double check oil pressure buildup. As mentioned earlier, the PCM can command up to a 60% duty cycle for the IPR. But if the PCM is providing maximum duty cycle and the ICP reports either less than 400psi or 2,000-2,500psi, and the engine is not running, it concludes there is a problem (a reading of 2,000-2,500 is a programmed “default” reading the PCM provides on the scan tool when it believes there’s a fault in the ICP). If you see 2,000-2,500psi on the ICP scan tool readout AND the engine isn’t running, you should suspect a bad ICP sensor.
If the engine won’t start, you can conclude there’s a problem in the high pressure system. Either the high pressure pump isn’t working, IPR is faulty, or there’s a large leak somewhere in the system that’s preventing pressure buildup. To eliminate a cylinder head leak from the troubleshooting process, remove the high pressure line from the right side head and cap it with a plug that can hold 3,000psi. Then remove the high pressure line from the left side cylinder head and attach a high pressure (3,000psi or more) gauge to the line. Then crank the engine and watch the pressure gauge. If you get a low reading, the problem is either a faulty high pressure pump or a bad IPR. First you must replace the IPR. If the problem still exists, replace the high pressure pump.
(from: P1211, P1212 Ford Powerstroke Diesel : Rick's Free Auto Repair Advice
From the old AE Forum;
If you hook up the scantool, and monitor ICP (psi) while cranking...you'll see IPR% (duty cycle) climb & climb 15% key on..20, 30, 40, 55%, higher..the increase in IPR% means that the PCM is requesting ICP pressure to increase... so ALSO watch ICP (psi) and if it comes up to only 180-250psi or so and stays there...then it's the IPR hung open (bypassing oil back to the oil pan through the front cover) such that only minimal psi can be made.
If the ICP is VERY low...like under 60psi...then it could be injector (poppets) pissing oil (under the VC's)..which is typical for injector with more than 180-200k miles. If ICP climbs above 550-600..then it will probably climb much higher (15-1800+) and it is most likely going to be an electrical issue.
If the scantool will not connect then its a PCM or chip issue (remove the chip if you have one & haven't removed it yet) if the scantool connects AND you have >600ICP then look at the datastream for a RPM reading. If the scantool picks up an RPM signal and it seems accurate....then the CPS is good.
If you have a scan tool ICP should be 500 PSI ± 25 PSI and fuel pulse width should be 1 to 6 milliseconds.
The above requirements assume the following:
Correct oil level, oil type and pressure
Correct type of fuel
Correct fuel pressure (53 PSI per Ford spec)
Sufficient air supply (clean air filter & unobstructed intake)
Proper oil level in HPOP reservoir (1 to ¾ inch from top)
Proper glow plug relay and glow plug operation (in cold weather)
Proper injection timing (PCM controlled)
And this This is from a post by Mr. Hansen:
Set up AE to monitor ICP and IPR duty cycle and crank it over. When you first turn the key on, you should get 14% IPR, and when you crank it, ICP should come up to 500 psi plus and IPR should be probably no higher than 25% or so. If IPR goes above 35% then you may have Injector o-ring leakage. That would explain the long crank times. You may also want to check cranking RPM, which should be a minimum of 100.
So, figure-out how to monitor the HPOP pres from the ICP, then watch how "hard" the IPR is working to maintain that pressure (%) and see if it's within specs. If so, drive it around, record a Snap Shot (isn't that what SnapOn calls it?), and wait for the light to come on and review to see if it shows why...