Join Date: Nov 2006
Location: Moses Lake, WA
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Before you remove the glow plugs use compressed air and blow the oil away from the glowplugs first, otherwise oil will enter the cylinder and give innacurate readings. I remove all the glow plugs first so the engine spins freely when cranking. I crank the the motor 6 revolutions when checking each cylinder. You should be close to 400 psi. Your lowest cylinder should be at least 75% of you highest reading. Heres a copy of Ford's procedure. It's for a gas motor but it's in there diesel section. Also included is a cylinder leak down procedure.
Compression Test—Compression Gauge Check
Make sure the oil in the crankcase is of the correct viscosity and at the correct level and that the battery (10655) is correctly charged. Operate the vehicle until the engine is at normal operating temperature. Turn the ignition switch to the OFF position, then remove all the spark plugs (12405).
Set the throttle plates in the wide-open position.
Install a compression gauge such as the Compression Tester in the No. 1 cylinder.
Install an auxiliary starter switch in the starting circuit. With the ignition switch in the OFF position, and using the auxiliary starter switch, crank the engine a minimum of five compression strokes and record the highest reading. Note the approximate number of compression strokes required to obtain the highest reading.
Repeat the test on each cylinder, cranking the engine approximately the same number of compression strokes.
Compression Test—Test Results
The indicated compression pressures are considered within specification if the lowest reading cylinder is at least 75 percent of the highest reading.
If one or more cylinders reads low, squirt approximately one tablespoon of engine oil on top of the pistons in the low-reading cylinders. Repeat the compression pressure check on these cylinders.
Compression Test—Interpreting Compression Readings
If compression improves considerably, piston rings are faulty.
If compression does not improve, valves are sticking or seating incorrectly.
If two adjacent cylinders indicate low compression pressures and squirting oil on each piston does not increase compression, the head gasket may be leaking between cylinders. Engine oil or coolant in cylinders could result from this condition.
Use the Compression Pressure Limit Chart when checking cylinder compression so that the lowest reading is within 75 percent of the highest reading.
Cylinder Leakage Detection
When a cylinder produces a low reading, use of the Engine Cylinder Leak Detection/Air Pressurization Kit will be helpful in pinpointing the exact cause.
The leakage detector is inserted in the spark plug hole, the piston is brought up to dead center on the compression stroke, and compressed air is admitted.
Once the combustion chamber is pressurized, a special gauge included in the kit will read the percentage of leakage. Leakage exceeding 20 percent is excessive.
While the air pressure is retained in the cylinder, listen for the hiss of escaping air. A leak at the intake valve (6507) will be heard in the throttle body (9E926). A leak at the exhaust valve (6505) can be heard at the tail pipe. Leakage past the piston rings will be audible at the positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) connection. If air is passing through a blown head gasket to an adjacent cylinder, the noise will be evident at the spark plug hole of the cylinder into which the air is leaking. Cracks in the cylinder block or gasket leakage into the cooling system may be detected by a stream of bubbles in the radiator (8005).
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