I am experiencing the same issue.
First thing everyone here will tell u to do is buy a digital gauge system that can monitor your engines vital this will give you some insight on how the truck is running, scangauge II is prob one of the cheapest and does a great job just doesn't look flash, if you want a nicer cleaner look edge makes the insight series monitor which comes in pushbutton CS or touch screen CTS.
Its plugs into your obd2 port under the dash just above the accelerator pedal and gives you up to 8 digital gauge readings at one time a must have on these trucks .
Once you get the monitor and have some data that its operating under normal specs have someone with ford ids software run whats called a cold soaked power balance test. It will check ficm (fuel injector control module which sends correct voltage to the injectors for optimal performance ficm should be outputting 47-48volts )and the 2nd test is for injector balance which will give you an indication if all injectors are working and firing in proper sequence.
if thats ok pop the turbo inlet and outlet tubes and look for oil you might have oil blow by caused from old/bad seals, the turbo might need a rebuild if you are seeping oil into the exhaust (causing turbo lag/surge white blueish oil burning exhaust .
if your egr valve looked good and the egr cooler was bad you would be burning coolant and getting white steam like exhaust not blue haze, also if the egr cooler was bad the coolant levels would be diminishing quickly since your boiling the h20 out of the coolant system, (and it would begin the overheating process which as we all know eventually blows head gaskets)
try putting a new coolant degas cap on (9-11 bucks at ford)they are known to break which would not allow you to test a proper psi reading for the coolant system
Once u have a new degas cap check your coolant pressure while doing 60mph on the highway when the truck is up to operating temp. There are a few threads on The forums or youtube videos on how to put together a coolant PSI test kit its like a $35 psi gauge kit and will let you know if there is a problem with the egrc or worse head gaskets. Coolant system Pressure at normal operation temps should not exceed 6-10 psi anything more than u have an issue in that regard.
Also check your coolant to see if it is low /mixing with oil or fuel it might look milky and cloudy or smells like fuel in it. You should be putting Cat elc el-1 rated coolant in the system for longevity of the system its far superior to the ford premium gold coolant , DO NOT USE GREEN OR DEX antifreeze.
Another cause for a bad or backed up cooling system would be a bad / clogged oil filter the psi test will potential. Tell that also since the egr system is piggy backed to the oil cooler.
You should be running a good oil in the truck most people on here recommend shell rotella 5w-40 t6 or an equivalent fully synthetic diesel oil , when in cold temps this will aid in better start ups and Smoother running.
Injectors are prob 3rd most expensive potential issue If you need injector(s)that can get pricey 150 -250 each depending, not including labor. head gaskets are the 2nd priciest option due to labor and technical difficulty of install.
The worst thing is to keep driving with this problem till you melt your motor then your out 8-11 k weather its full rebuild or new engine all together
Obviously this is allot of info and a million different circumstances, search the boards but if your a DIYer and don't want to tap into the warranty for the small stuff , start with a monitoring system and the homemade coolant psi gauge test, if that doesn't help, get the FORD IDS diagnostic test and go from there. Good luck and any questions on here everyone welcomes there is a plethora from some very experienced members .
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